The birds, the trees, don't belong to some particular land. There is a real land that exists outside and there is one in the imagination.

M. Hasan & Sukanya Ghosh

Media & Publications

Articles, Book Chapters, and Reports


This report summarizes the predominant national identities and discourses in India in 1970. The data is generated by inductive discourse analysis of a sample of elite and mass texts. The analysis shows that in 1970, there is widespread consensus among elites and masses that India is an independent democracy with constitutionally enshrined separation of powers and liberties. However, mass discourse is deeply concerned about rising political instability, entrenched class, caste and communal inequalities, and poor leadership. Likewise, although there is general consensus that India is a developing economy, there is disagreement between the country’s leaders who support socialist policies and the rest of society which prefers liberal policies. The full report is available here.

This report is part of a qualitative and quantitative open source dataset of great power national identities from 1950-2010 available on the Making Identity Count Project website.


  • 'Scenarios 2030' in Developments in the Gulf Region: Prospects and Challenges for India in the Next Two Decades, ed. Rumel Dahiya (with Medha and Rahul Chauhan) (2013)

In this chapter, we explore the key social, technological, economic, environmental, and political trends and drivers affecting the future of the Gulf countries. Based on this analysis, we develop three alternative ideal-type scenarios of the likely geostrategic context of the West Asian region in the year 2030. This strategic foresight exercise was conducted to help inform the Indian Ministry of External Affair's long term policy planning.

More information and purchasing options for the edited volume is available here.

Media & Podcasts


The border dispute with China has provided a national distraction but COVID-19 is spreading out of control in India. Leadership is a crucial variable as we evaluate outcomes so far and consider how things may evolve in the coming weeks. In this post for the Duck of Minerva, I draw on Weber’s ‘Politics as a Vocation’ to explore Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s leadership of the coronavirus pandemic in India.

The global COVID-19 pandemic has aggravated the fragmentation of the prevailing international order and reinforced the weakening of multilateral institutions. As Trump and Xi battle over who can be the bigger bully, what kind of leadership can we expect from ‘World Guru’ India? I take a closer look at Modi's 'human-centric globalization' and 'aatmanirbharta' in this article for the 9DASHLINE.

There are good reasons for South Asian countries to cooperate as they tackle the fallout from the COVID-19 crisis. However, SAARC is not the most viable forum to broker that cooperation. I explain why in this article published on 9DASHLINE.

India has long treated South Asia as a constraint on its ambitions and dismissed its concerns. Six years on, there is little evidence to suggest that its foreign policy establishment has changed how it views the region. In this article, review the Modi government's South Asia policy in my latest article published on 9DASHLINE and South Asian Voices.

I discuss some findings from my ongoing research on India's national identity from 1950-2010 for the Making Identity Count Project in this episode of Hamsini Hariharan's podcast, States of Anarchy. I explore some salient continuities and changes in Indian identity discourses since independence, and how these relate to the current battle between secularism and hindu nationalism.

In this episode, I join Alia Amir of Uppsala University and Amir Massoumian of SOAS to talk about our experiences with diversity in academia on Ann Wand's academic podcast, Coffee & Cocktails.


All content and pictures are ©Manali Kumar, 2020.